[ China Agricultural Machinery Industry News]
In 2017, China's rural banks entered the tenth year of development. Rural banks have grown from nothing to nothing, and have gradually grown into a new force that supports small rural areas and revitalizes rural financial markets. Up to now, 1,519 rural banks have been established nationwide, with a total asset size of 1.24 trillion yuan and a total loan balance of 702.1 billion yuan. Among them, loans from farmers and small and micro enterprises totaled 652.6 billion yuan, accounting for 93% of the total loan balance. A total of 5.8 million loans were granted to 3.52 million farmers and small and micro enterprises, and the loan amount reached 3 trillion yuan. "Economic Daily" reporter recently visited Henan, Hubei, Sichuan and other provinces and found that the financial market potential of China's county and rural areas is huge, but traditional financial institutions have short service radius and high threshold, which is difficult to meet the growing financing needs of rural areas. The rural banks have played a pivotal role in helping the poor areas to get rid of poverty, increase farmers' income, and support the development of small and micro enterprises.
Rural Banks Serve Rural Financial Reform and Help the "Three Rural Issues"
The picture shows the bank manager of Renshou Minfu Village, Renshou County, Meishan City, Sichuan Province. The account manager explains the agricultural loan related products for the farmers in the agricultural financial loan zone. Up to now, the bank has issued a total of 15,494 loans, totaling 4.588 billion yuan, and the average loan balance per household is 276,600 yuan. The proportion of loans to agriculture, rural areas and farmers has reached 86.97%.
Inclusive finance expands coverage
For a long time, rural finance has been characterized by small demand, high frequency of occurrence, and high risk of loans. The willingness of traditional financial institutions to expand rural markets is not strong. For this reason, the proportion of small and micro enterprises and rural households in rural areas is relatively small. Financing difficulties have become a "heart disease" that plagues the development of farmers and small and micro enterprises.
However, in recent years, as an important achievement of rural financial reform, rural banks have eased the financing difficulties and financing problems of â€œagriculture, rural areas and farmersâ€, and enabled the rural inclusive financial system to cover remote areas and poor people, and promoted the improvement of the inclusive financial system. . Judging from the actual situation of the reporters' investigation, China's rural banks have built the local characteristics of inclusive finance through the practice and cultivation of the past 10 years.
At present, Henan Zhongzheng Zhengyin Village Bank, which has assets and deposits â€œdouble over 10 billion yuanâ€, has its total assets, deposit and loan balance, current profit and branches.
"I am a peasant, and the idea of â€‹â€‹CCB is to do 'the farmer's own bank'." Li Guifu, the bank governor of Zhengyin Village, told the Economic Daily reporter that the bank was close to the rural farmers. The county moved to Guandu Town, which is more than 10 kilometers away from the county seat. Subsequently, 22 sub-branches were set up in Liuji and other townships. Then, under the premise of full coverage of county townships and towns, 50 support service points were set up in the administrative village. Li Guifu told reporters that the village banks must be rooted in the countryside, Zhongzheng Zhengyin implements the fragmentation village responsibility system, and establishes the account managerâ€™s diary of working in the village. Even if there is no service outlet, the client manager is required to take the fragmentation. The method of subcontracting the village is to do the grassroots bank with the farmers.
Lai Xiufu, director of the Hubei Banking Regulatory Bureau, used the term â€œgreat changeâ€ to describe the growth of rural banks in the past 10 years. According to Lai Xiufu, the scale change is that 145 new rural financial institutions in Hubei Province have covered all counties and cities in the province, including 66 village banks in the legal institutions, and service outlets have been fully rolled out; the great change in service is to open up grassroots services. After the first mile, the community and rural comprehensive management grid was re-divided into financial grids for grid management.
As a province that has nurtured the banks of the villages and towns, Sichuan has guided the main sponsoring bank to set up village banks in the national poverty-stricken counties and underdeveloped areas with the trajectory of the establishment of the â€œnationally designated poverty-stricken countiesâ€”the earthquake-stricken counties-agricultural countiesâ€. . "We urge the village banks to implement the Pratt & Whitney Credit, Du shareholders, and preferential services for large customers." Li Guorong, deputy director of the Sichuan Banking Regulatory Bureau, said that to achieve the effect of universal benefits, the village banks need to "ground gas, water and soil."
Supporting agriculture and supporting small entities to support the real economy
Zhongzheng Zhengyin Village Bank, as a rural bank with a high total of deposits and loans nationwide, has a total asset of 14.2 billion yuan as of the end of last year.
On the afternoon of March 6, the reporter went to the head office of Zhongyin Zhengyin Village Bank in Guandu Town, and saw a clean and spacious office environment and an endless stream of customers. President Li Guifu appeared, and all the farmers who were going to do business greeted him like an old friend. "Our family situation is familiar to Li, and helped the villagers solve a lot of problems." Local farmer Tan Daye told reporters that before the family needs pigs for loans, due to lack of collateral, other banks are reluctant to lend, but the village banks carefully examine After the situation of his family, he was given a "green card" and he finally paid 80,000 yuan.
Originally, in order to adapt to the current situation of local farmers' loan demand, short-term payment period and uncollateralized situation, Zhongyin Zhengyin Village Bank opened a green loan channel, selected credit villages, implemented centralized credit, and had projects in the credit village. The credited farmers issue â€œfarm loans for farmersâ€ (â€œgreen cardâ€). When the farmers have financial needs, they can get the funds that are urgently needed for production and operation on the day of holding the household registration book and loan certificate. In addition, the employees of Zhongyin Zhengyin Village Bank visited the house and went through the door-to-door interviews to issue 168,000 â€œresolution cardsâ€ to 16 townships, 3 offices and 422 administrative villages in Zhongmu County, and the regional branch managers of the administrative villages. The contact information of the account manager of the â€œThree Ruralâ€ business department is printed on the â€œSolutions Cardâ€, with key, planned and targeted contact assistance.
Li Guifu told reporters that with the approval of the relevant departments, he also served as the deputy secretary of the Party branch of Tianzhuang Village in Guandu Town. The other members of the leadership team also served as the deputy directors of other villages. "Serving farmers must care about all aspects of farmers, not only to give him loans but also to teach him to get rich." According to Li Guifu, the Zhongzheng Zhengyin Village Bank will take out a portion of the money as a special expense every year to provide farmers with professional training in planting and breeding, and educate farmers. Learn culture and financial knowledge, and cultivate farmers to be honest and trustworthy. "Serving farmers is the rules and regulations of our bank. All branches must implement them and include financial management in expenditure management. Last year, the expenditure for serving farmers was nearly 2 million yuan, but this money was spent a little bit." Li Guifu said Through the financial assistance of the village banks, the farmers in Zhongmu County have planted high-value-added cash crops, earning more income, strong operational capacity, high enthusiasm for deposits and loans, and better banking business.
Murui Company is a feed production enterprise in Renshou County, Meishan City, Sichuan Province. During the operation, it was found that the downstream farmers mostly took credits when they purchased the feed from the midstream dealers. The dealers did not receive the cash, so they must The company credited the feed for sale. This has created a dilemma. If the company is not blaming the dealers, the sales will shrink immediately and the market will soon be lost. However, the long-term credit has caused the company to have a shortage of cash flow, which makes production difficult.
Renshou Fumin Village Bank learned that this situation has customized the credit product â€œMuruitongâ€ for the company. The core of this product is guaranteed by Murui Company, which provides low-interest credit loans to farmers who use Murui feed. After the loan is issued, it is directly used for payment of feed funds. Farmers use the money earned from farming to directly return the loan. The problems of feed production and farmer farming have been solved. A small loan lever has shaken the farming and farming economy throughout the region. Renshou Fumin Village Bank, a custom credit product like this, has designed more than 30 models and is very popular among local small and micro enterprises.
The threshold is lowered and the supervision is strict
"Compared with the big bank, the rural banks have weak risk resistance and are vulnerable to external influences and impacts. Therefore, it is not possible to lower the regulatory standards because of the small size of the institutions. It is necessary to firmly establish a legal and compliant management awareness at the beginning of the establishment of the village banks. To ensure long-term sustainable development. Zhou Jialong, deputy director of the Henan Banking Regulatory Bureau, said that the regulatory authorities will guide the main sponsors to correctly handle the relationship with the rural banks through regulatory talks and sending regulatory letters, and deviate from the reasonable range of regulatory indicators. Through the issuance of risk tips and interview agencies, the village banks will be promoted to carry out in-depth rectification.
â€œAgricultural loan, commercial loan, no business can not be loaned; poor loan, rich loan, bad character can not be loaned; big loan, small loan, no credit can not be loaned.â€ Director of Huangshi Branch of Hubei Banking Regulatory Bureau The credit concept advocated by Wang Guoqiang is a true portrayal of rural credit work. It is precisely because the customers facing the rural banks are mostly low-income groups lacking collateral, and the credit threshold is appropriately relaxed, so the supervision can not be relaxed. â€œFor example, Hubei Daye Tailong Village Bank implemented a â€œthree-inquiryâ€ and â€œfive-verificationâ€ credit investigation model, which is to search for letters, check blacklists, and check household accounts; verify subject qualifications, operating status, credit status, assets and liabilities, The purpose of the loan.â€ Wang Guoqiang said that sometimes investigating the credit status of customers is not as difficult as imagined. On the basis of doing a good investigation, the risk of non-performing loans can be controlled. At present, Huangshi Cityâ€™s rural banks control the non-performing loan ratio at 0.65%. In addition, the Hubei Provincial Banking Association has set up a platform for the services of rural banks, the Hubei Provincial Rural Bank Working Committee, and organized 22 village and town bank sponsors to sign a liquidity support agreement, promising the liquidity ratio of rural banks. When the warning line is below 25%, the main sponsoring bank will provide financial support in the form of interbank deposits and other means, and assume responsibility for liquidity risk relief.
â€œSichuan has also developed differentiated liquidity monitoring indicators, and urged rural banks to sign and refine liquidity support agreements, join liquidity mutual aid organizations, and prevent liquidity risks.â€ Li Guorong said that Sichuan Banking Regulatory Bureau Strictly classify asset risks and guide village banks to increase the use rate of tools such as seal management systems. "We have feedback to the sponsoring bank through the training of shareholder directors, daily regulatory interviews, etc., to the management of the township bank's operation and management, problems and difficulties, and strive to launch the internal control mechanism, IT system development, credit risk resolution, personnel training and other aspects. Village and town banks have more support." Li Guorong said.
Adhere to the development of differentiated features
In the past 10 years, the rural bank has gone through a path of differentiated management and differentiated services. In the future development, it is still necessary to adhere to the small positioning of supporting agriculture and take root in rural areas to fill the shortcomings of grassroots financial services.
"In the future, in the cultivation of rural banks, we must adhere to the principle of quantity obeying quality. From the actual needs, we must build a family and not blindly." Zhou Jialong said that village banks must adhere to specialization and differentiation in order to achieve sustainable development. development of. Only by insisting on serving the market, cultivating the market orientation of â€œagriculture, rural areas and farmersâ€, and insisting on innovating localized financial products and services, and insisting on deepening the construction of branches in towns and villages and villages, can the village banks promote the misplaced competition and mobilize the supporting agriculture services? Enthusiasm and creativity.
Deng Chuanzhong, deputy governor of Wuhan Rural Commercial Bank of Hubei Province, believes that rural banks are â€œgrassroots banksâ€. The marketing method is â€œsimpler, more rustic and more effectiveâ€. Local village banks that others donâ€™t go go, and other villages do not do time, The opportunity for others to give up the village banks will be able to reflect the differences and characteristics. â€œVillage banks must implement localized management strategies, implement talent localization strategies, and introduce local financial management personnel to lay the preconditions for rural banks to integrate into the localities as soon as possible.â€ Deng Chuanzhong said that village banks must actively integrate folk culture and rural culture. . Employees of village and township cadres should make friends with local residents, pair up with large agricultural households, do a good job of mapping and exploring potential customers. The village and town bank outlets located in the county town should be based on the â€œsmall microâ€ business. The village and town bank outlets in the townships and towns should be based on the â€œthree ruralâ€ business. The outlets should be arranged and the customer managers should be sent out.
In the aspect of improving corporate governance, Deng Chuanzhong believes that village banks should strengthen the functions of the board of directors, improve the scientific nature of the board's strategic decision-making and investment decisions, and strengthen the board of supervisors to form effective constraints and supervision; it is also necessary to strengthen the responsibilities of the management layer and establish The effective incentive and restraint mechanism links the interests of the management team with the interests of the shareholders of the village banks and combines with the long-term development of the company.
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